Minimum Spanning Tree in Every Language
Published on 03 November 2018 (Updated: 02 May 2020)
A minimum spanning tree is defined as the minimum set of edges needed to connect every node in a graph without cycles. For our purposes, we’re concerned with weighted undirected graphs. In other words, we want to find the minimum cost spanning tree.
For example, let’s say we have the following graph:
TODO: insert graph image
Then, a possible minimum spanning tree would have the lowest total weight while also connected all nodes without cycles. Such as:
TODO: insert graph image
Naturally, there are a few ways to solve this problem, but the two most famous are Prim’s algorithm and Kruskal’s algorithm. Check those out before implementing this solution.
Requirements
To implement this algorithm, your program should accept a square matrix of strings in the following format:
./minimumspanningtree "0, 2, 0, 6, 0, 2, 0, 3, 8, 5, 0, 3, 0, 0, 7, 6, 8, 0, 0, 9, 0, 5, 7, 9, 0"
Here we’ve chosen to represent the matrix as a serialized list of integers. Since the input string represents a square matrix, we should be able to take the square root of the length to determine where the rows are in the string. In this case, we have 25 values, so we must have 5 nodes.
If we reformat the input string as a matrix, we’ll notice that the values in the matrix represent the edge weight between each node. For example, we could reformat our example to look something like the following:
Mapping  0  1  2  3  4 

0  0  2  0  6  0 
1  2  0  3  8  5 
2  0  3  0  0  7 
3  6  8  0  0  9 
4  0  5  7  9  0 
Here, we can see that there is no edge between node 0 and node 2. Meanwhile, node 0 has an edge to node 3 with a weight of 6.
If we continue to look at this table, we’ll notice that all the edges are mirrored across the top to bottom diagonal. In other words, the weight from node 0 to node 1 is the same as the weight from node 1 to node 0. We can use this property to differentiate between directed and undirected graphs.
For simplicity, the output sequence should print the minimum weight of the tree. In other words, what is the cost of the minimum spanning tree?
Testing
Description  Input  Output 

No Input  “Usage: please provide a commaseparated list of integers”  
Empty Input  ””  “Usage: please provide a commaseparated list of integers” 
NonSquare Input  “1, 0, 3, 0, 5, 1”  “Usage: please provide a commaseparated list of integers” 
Proper Input  “0, 2, 0, 6, 0, 2, 0, 3, 8, 5, 0, 3, 0, 0, 7, 6, 8, 0, 0, 9, 0, 5, 7, 9, 0”  16 
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