Hello World in COBOLPublished on 08 October 2021 (Updated: 08 October 2021)
In this article, we will see how Hello World can be written in one of the oldest and still relevant programming language, COBOL.
How to Implement the Solution
From it’s very nature, COBOL is a very readable language. But even though it’s readable, it follows very strict rules.
IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. PROGRAM-ID. HELLO-WORLD. PROCEDURE DIVISION. DISPLAY "Hello, World!". STOP RUN.
The structure of a COBOL program follows like this:
- At the highest level are “Divisions”.
- “Divisions” consist of “Sections”.
- “Sections” consist of “Paragraphs”.
- “Paragraphs” consist of “Sentences”.
- “Sentences” consist of “Statements”.
- “Statements” consist of “Characters”.
We know that Python as language cares a lot about indentation but COBOL is even more particular about it. A COBOL program is divided into columns. The Divisions must start from column 8 (Area A). Paragraphs and Sentences should start from column 12 (Area B) which you can see is 1 tab or 4 spaces away from Area A. This indentation is also a reason why COBOL is so readable. Now that we have cleared some basics, let’s start reading the Hello World program.
IDENTIFICATION DIVISION is one of the 4 Divisions that we have and it is mandatory.
As the name suggests, it consists of information that identifies the program like the author name, date of creation, etc.
One mandatory information for program identification is, you guessed it, the
Here we are declaring the
As a side note, we should ideally keep the
PROGRAM-ID same as the file name and only 8 characters long. But since we will be running this program on a Linux environment, it’s fine.
Next we have the other mandatory Division,
This contains all the Paragraphs and Sentences that do the actual work.
And here, the Sentence doing our work is
DISPLAY "Hello, World!".
DISPLAY is our Statement here and it does what it says it does.
Then we have another Statement ,which is a Sentence in itself,
And well, it stops the run and returns the control to either the calling program or the OS.
Also you should end any part of the program with a period. It might be optional at some places but it is recommended.
That’s it! Apart from the little nuances of indentation and program structure, it’s a very readable program.
How to run the Solution
cobc -x hello-world.cbl $ ./hello-world
The commands first compile the source code into an executable and then execute it. Alternatively, you might want to use an online COBOL compiler